Ditto utilizes a subset of RQL as language for specifying queries.

The RQL project page says about it:

Resource Query Language (RQL) is a query language designed for use in URIs with object style data structures. […]
RQL can be thought as basically a set of nestable named operators which each have a set of arguments. RQL is designed to have an extremely simple, but extensible grammar that can be written in a URL friendly query string.

An example helps more than a thousand words, so that would be the example of a simple RQL query querying for foo="ditto" and bar<10:

and(eq(foo,"ditto"),lt(bar,10))

That query consists of one logical operator “and”, two relational operators of which each consists of a property and a value.

The following sections describe what the RQL syntax is capable of.

RQL filter

The RQL filter specifies “what” to filter.

Query property

<property> = url-encoded-string

To filter nested properties, Ditto uses the JSON Pointer notation (RFC-6901).

The following example shows how to apply a filter for the sub property location of the parent property attributes with a forward slash as separator:

eq(attributes/location,"kitchen")

Query value

<value> = <number>, <string>, true, false, null
<number> = double, integer
<string> = ", url-encoded-string, "

Comparison of string values

Comparison of other data types

Relational operators

The following relational operators are supported.

eq

Filter property values equal to <value>.

eq(<property>,<value>)

Example - filter things owned by “SID123”

eq(attributes/owner,"SID123")

ne

Filter property values not equal to <value>.

ne(<property>,<value>)

Example - filter things with owner different than “SID123”

ne(attributes/owner,"SID123")

The response will contain only things which do provide an owner attribute (in this case with value 0 or not SID123).

gt

Filter property values greater than a <value>.

gt(<property>,<value>) 

Example - filter things with thing ID greater than “A000”

gt(thingId,"A000")

ge

Filter property values greater than or equal to a <value>.

ge(<property>,<value>) 

Example - filter things with thing ID “A000” or greater

ge(thingId,"A000")

lt

Filter property values less than a <value>.

lt(<property>,<value>) 

Example - filter things with thing ID lower than “A000”

lt(thingId,"A000")

le

Filter property values less than or equal to a <value>.

le(<property>,<value>) 

Example - filter things with thing ID “A000” or lower

le(thingId,"A000")

in

Filter property values which contains at least one of the listed <value>s.

in(<property>,<value>,<value>, ...) 

Example - filter things with thing ID “A000” or “AB00” or “AZ99”

in(thingId,"A000","AB00","AZ99")

like

Filter property values which are like (similar) a <value>.

like(<property>,<value>) 

Details concerning the like-operator

The like operator provides some regular expression capabilities for pattern matching Strings.
The following expressions are supported:

  • *endswith => match at the end of a specific String.
  • startswith* => match at the beginning of a specific String.
  • *contains* => match if contains a specific String.
  • Th?ng => match for a wildcard character.

Examples

like(attributes/key1,"*known-chars-at-end")

like(attributes/key1,"known-chars-at-start*") 

like(attributes/key1,"*known-chars-in-between*") 

like(attributes/key1,"just-som?-char?-unkn?wn")

exists

Filter property values which exist.

exists(<property>)

Example - filter things which have a feature with ID “feature_1”

exists(features/feature_1)

Example - filter lamps which are located in the “living-room”

and(exists(features/lamp),eq(attributes/location,"living-room"))

Logical operators

and

Ensure that all given queries match.

and(<query>,<query>, ...)

Example - filter things which are located on the “upper floor” in the “living-room”

and(eq(attributes/floor,"upper floor"),eq(attributes/location,"living-room"))

or

At least one of the given queries match.

or(<query>,<query>, ...)

Example - filter all things located on the “upper floor”, and all things with location “living-room”

or(eq(attributes/floor,"upper floor"),eq(attributes/location,"living-room"))

not

Negates the given query.

not(<query>)

Example - filter things whose ID do not start with a common prefix

not(like(thingId,"org.eclipse.ditto:blacklisted*"))

RQL sorting

The RQL sorting part specifies in which order the result should be returned.

sort(<+|-><property>,<+|-><property>,...)
  • Use + for an ascending sort order (URL encoded character %2B)
  • Use - for a descending sort order (URL encoded character %2D)

Example - sort the list ascending by the thing ID

sort(+thingId)

Example - sort the list ascending by an attribute

sort(+attributes/location)

Example - multiple sort options

sort(-attributes/location,+thingId)

This expression will sort the list descending by location attribute.
In case there are multiple things with the same location attribute, these are sorted ascending by their ID.

Sorting of string values

Sorting of other values

Tags: rql