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Jetty’s HTTP client can be configured to use different transports to carry the semantic of HTTP requests and responses.
This means that the intention of a client to request resource
/index.html using the
GET method can be carried over the network in different formats.
A HTTP client transport is the component that is in charge of converting a high-level, semantic, HTTP requests such as "GET resource /index.html" into the specific format understood by the server (for example, HTTP/2), and to convert the server response from the specific format (HTTP/2) into high-level, semantic objects that can be used by applications.
In this way, applications are not aware of the actual protocol being used. This allows them to write their logic against a high-level API that hides the details of the specific protocol being used over the network.
The most common protocol format is HTTP/1.1, a text-based protocol with lines separated by
GET /index.html HTTP/1.1\r\n Host: domain.com\r\n ... \r\n
However, the same request can be made using FastCGI, a binary protocol:
x01 x01 x00 x01 x00 x08 x00 x00 x00 x01 x01 x00 x00 x00 x00 x00 x01 x04 x00 x01 xLL xLL x00 x00 x0C x0B D O C U M E N T _ U R I / i n d e x . h t m l ...
Similarly, HTTP/2 is a binary protocol that transports the same information in a yet different format.
HTTP/1.1 is the default transport.
// No transport specified, using default. HttpClient client = new HttpClient(); client.start();
If you want to customize the HTTP/1.1 transport, you can explicitly configure
HttpClient in this way:
int selectors = 1; HttpClientTransportOverHTTP transport = new HttpClientTransportOverHTTP(selectors); HttpClient client = new HttpClient(transport, null); client.start();
The example above allows you to customize the number of NIO selectors that
HttpClient will be using.
The HTTP/2 transport can be configured in this way:
HTTP2Client h2Client = new HTTP2Client(); h2Client.setSelectors(1); HttpClientTransportOverHTTP2 transport = new HttpClientTransportOverHTTP2(h2Client); HttpClient client = new HttpClient(transport, null); client.start();
HTTP2Client is the lower-level client that provides an API based on HTTP/2 concepts such as sessions, streams and frames that are specific to HTTP/2.
HTTP2Client to format high-level semantic HTTP requests ("GET resource /index.html") into the HTTP/2 specific format.
The FastCGI transport can be configured in this way:
int selectors = 1; String scriptRoot = "/var/www/wordpress"; HttpClientTransportOverFCGI transport = new HttpClientTransportOverFCGI(selectors, false, scriptRoot); HttpClient client = new HttpClient(transport, null); client.start();
The FastCGI transport is primarily used by Jetty’s FastCGI support to serve PHP pages (WordPress for example).