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Version: 9.4.5.v20170502
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Running Jetty

Demo Base
Creating a new Jetty Base
Changing the Jetty Port
Adding SSL for HTTPS & HTTP2
More start.jar options

To start Jetty on the default port of 8080, run the following command:

> java -jar start.jar

2015-06-04 10:50:44.806:INFO::main: Logging initialized @334ms
2015-06-04 10:50:44.858:WARN:oejs.HomeBaseWarning:main: This instance of Jetty is not running from a separate {jetty.base} directory, this is not recommended.  See documentation at
2015-06-04 10:50:44.995:INFO:oejs.Server:main: jetty-9.3.0.v20150601
2015-06-04 10:50:45.012:INFO:oejdp.ScanningAppProvider:main: Deployment monitor [file:///opt/jetty-distribution-9.3.0.v20150601/webapps/] at interval 1
2015-06-04 10:50:45.030:INFO:oejs.ServerConnector:main: Started ServerConnector@19dfb72a{HTTP/1.1,[http/1.1]}{}
2015-06-04 10:50:45.030:INFO:oejs.Server:main: Started @558ms

You can point a browser at this server at http://localhost:8080. However, as there are no webapps deployed in the $JETTY_HOME directory, you will see a 404 error page served by Jetty. Note the HomeBase warning - it is not recommended to run Jetty from the $JETTY_HOME directory. Instead, see how to create a Jetty Base below.

Demo Base

Within the standard jetty distribution there is the demo-base directory, which demonstrates the recommended way to run Jetty in a directory separately from $JETTY_HOME:

> cd $JETTY_HOME/demo-base/
> java -jar $JETTY_HOME/start.jar

2015-06-04 10:55:24.161:INFO::main: Logging initialized @308ms
2015-06-04 10:55:24.431:WARN::main: demo test-realm is deployed. DO NOT USE IN PRODUCTION!
2015-06-04 10:55:24.434:INFO:oejs.Server:main: jetty-9.3.0.v20150601
2015-06-04 10:55:24.457:INFO:oejdp.ScanningAppProvider:main: Deployment monitor [file:///opt/jetty-distribution-9.3.0.v20150601/demo-base/webapps/] at interval 1
2015-06-04 10:55:24.826:INFO:oejsh.ContextHandler:main: Started o.e.j.w.WebAppContext@c038203{/,file:///opt/jetty-distribution-9.3.0.v20150601/demo-base/webapps/ROOT/,AVAILABLE}{/ROOT}
2015-06-04 10:55:24.929:WARN::main: test-jaas webapp is deployed. DO NOT USE IN PRODUCTION!
2015-06-04 10:55:24.978:INFO:oejsh.ContextHandler:main: Started o.e.j.w.WebAppContext@46238e3f{/test-jaas,file:///tmp/jetty-,AVAILABLE}{/test-jaas.war}
2015-06-04 10:55:25.162:WARN::main: async-rest webapp is deployed. DO NOT USE IN PRODUCTION!
2015-06-04 10:55:25.208:INFO:oejsh.ContextHandler:main: Started o.e.j.w.WebAppContext@6b67034{/async-rest,[file:///tmp/jetty-, jar:file:///tmp/jetty-!/META-INF/resources],AVAILABLE}{/async-rest.war}
2015-06-04 10:55:25.311:WARN::main: test-jndi webapp is deployed. DO NOT USE IN PRODUCTION!
2015-06-04 10:55:25.386:INFO:oejsh.ContextHandler:main: Started o.e.j.w.WebAppContext@8b96fde{/test-jndi,file:///tmp/jetty-,AVAILABLE}{/test-jndi.war}
2015-06-04 10:55:25.508:WARN::main: test-spec webapp is deployed. DO NOT USE IN PRODUCTION!
2015-06-04 10:55:25.594:INFO:oejsh.ContextHandler:main: Started o.e.j.w.WebAppContext@69930714{/test-spec,[file:///tmp/jetty-, jar:file:///tmp/jetty-!/META-INF/resources],AVAILABLE}{/test-spec.war}
2015-06-04 10:55:25.781:INFO:oejsh.ContextHandler:main: Started o.e.j.w.WebAppContext@3eb7fc54{/proxy,file:///tmp/jetty-,AVAILABLE}{/xref-proxy.war}
2015-06-04 10:55:25.786:INFO:oejsh.ContextHandler:main: Started o.e.j.s.h.MovedContextHandler@59662a0b{/oldContextPath,null,AVAILABLE}
2015-06-04 10:55:25.951:WARN::main: test webapp is deployed. DO NOT USE IN PRODUCTION!
2015-06-04 10:55:26.248:INFO:oejsh.ContextHandler:main: Started o.e.j.w.WebAppContext@4f83df68{/test,file:///tmp/jetty-,AVAILABLE}{/test.war}
2015-06-04 10:55:26.255:INFO:oejs.ServerConnector:main: Started ServerConnector@5a9c4ad9{HTTP/1.1,[http/1.1]}{}
2015-06-04 10:55:26.259:INFO:oejus.SslContextFactory:main: x509={} wild={} alias=null for SslContextFactory@23941fb4(file:///opt/jetty-distribution-9.3.0.v20150601/demo-base/etc/keystore,file:///opt/jetty-distribution-9.3.0.v20150601/demo-base/etc/keystore)
2015-06-04 10:55:26.269:INFO:oejs.ServerConnector:main: Started ServerConnector@5d908d47{SSL,[ssl, http/1.1]}{}
2015-06-04 10:55:26.270:INFO:oejs.Server:main: Started @2417ms

You can visit this demo server by pointing a browser at http://localhost:8080, which will now show a welcome page and several demo/test web applications.


The demonstration web applications are not necessarily secure and should not be deployed in production web servers.

You can see the configuration of the demo-base by using the following commands:

> cd $JETTY_HOME/demo-base/
> java -jar $JETTY_HOME/start.jar --list-modules

> java -jar %JETTY_HOME/start.jar --list-config
The `--list-modules` command will return a complete list of available and enabled modules for the server.
It will also display the location of the modules, how and in what order they are implemented, dependent modules, and associated jar files.
The `--list-config` command displays a trove of  information about the server including the Java and Jetty environments, the configuration order, any JVM arguments or System Properties set, general server properties, a full listing of the Jetty server class path, and active Jetty XML files.

Creating a new Jetty Base

The demo-base directory described above is an example of the jetty.base mechanism added in Jetty 9.1. A Jetty base directory allows the configuration and web applications of a server instance to be stored separately from the Jetty distribution, so that upgrades can be done with minimal disruption. Jetty’s default configuration is based on two properties:

The property that defines the location of the jetty distribution, its libs, default modules and default XML files (typically start.jar, lib, etc)
The property that defines the location of a specific instance of a jetty server, its configuration, logs and web applications (typically start.ini, start.d, logs and webapps)


Your Jetty Home directory should be treated as a standard of truth and remain unmodified or changed. Changes or additions to your configuration should take place in the Jetty Base directory.

The jetty.home and jetty.base properties may be explicitly set on the command line, or they can be inferred from the environment if used with commands like:

> java -jar $JETTY_HOME/start.jar

The following commands create a new base directory, enables both the HTTP connector and the web application deployer modules, and copies a demo webapp to be deployed:

> JETTY_BASE=/tmp/mybase
> mkdir $JETTY_BASE
> java -jar $JETTY_HOME/start.jar

WARNING: Nothing to start, exiting ...

Usage: java -jar start.jar [options] [properties] [configs]
       java -jar start.jar --help  # for more information

> java -jar $JETTY_HOME/start.jar --create-startd
INFO : Base directory was modified
> java -jar $JETTY_HOME/start.jar --add-to-start=http,deploy

INFO: server          initialised (transitively) in ${jetty.base}/start.d/server.ini
INFO: http            initialised in ${jetty.base}/start.d/http.ini
INFO: security        initialised (transitively) in ${jetty.base}/start.d/security.ini
INFO: servlet         initialised (transitively) in ${jetty.base}/start.d/servlet.ini
INFO: webapp          initialised (transitively) in ${jetty.base}/start.d/webapp.ini
INFO: deploy          initialised in ${jetty.base}/start.d/deploy.ini
MKDIR: ${jetty.base}/webapps
INFO: Base directory was modified

> cp $JETTY_HOME/demo-base/webapps/async-rest.war webapps/ROOT.war
> java -jar $JETTY_HOME/start.jar

2015-06-04 11:10:16.286:INFO::main: Logging initialized @274ms
2015-06-04 11:10:16.440:INFO:oejs.Server:main: jetty-9.3.0.v20150601
2015-06-04 11:10:16.460:INFO:oejdp.ScanningAppProvider:main: Deployment monitor [file:///tmp/mybase/webapps/] at interval 1
2015-06-04 11:10:16.581:WARN::main: async-rest webapp is deployed. DO NOT USE IN PRODUCTION!
2015-06-04 11:10:16.589:INFO:oejw.StandardDescriptorProcessor:main: NO JSP Support for /, did not find org.eclipse.jetty.jsp.JettyJspServlet
2015-06-04 11:10:16.628:INFO:oejsh.ContextHandler:main: Started o.e.j.w.WebAppContext@1a407d53{/,[file:///tmp/jetty-, jar:file:///tmp/jetty-!/META-INF/resources],AVAILABLE}{/ROOT.war}
2015-06-04 11:10:16.645:INFO:oejs.ServerConnector:main: Started ServerConnector@3abbfa04{HTTP/1.1,[http/1.1]}{}
2015-06-04 11:10:16.646:INFO:oejs.Server:main: Started @634ms

Changing the Jetty Port

You can configure Jetty to run on a different port by setting the jetty.http.port Property on the command line:

> java -jar $JETTY_HOME/start.jar jetty.http.port=8081

Alternatively, property values can be added to the effective command line built from either the start.ini file or start.d/http.ini files. By default, the Jetty distribution defines the jetty.http.port property in the start.d/http.ini file, which may be edited to set another value.


The configuration by properties works via the following chain:

  • The start.d/http.ini file is part of the effective command line and contains the --module=http argument which activates the http module.
  • The modules/http.mod file defines the http module which specifies the etc/jetty-http.xml configuration file and the template ini properties it uses.
  • The jetty.http.port property is used by the Property XML element in etc/jetty.http.xml to inject the ServerConnector instance with the port.

For more information see the Quickstart Configuration Guide and Configuring Connectors.

Adding SSL for HTTPS & HTTP2

To add HTTPS and HTTP2 connectors to a Jetty configuration, the modules can be activated by the following command:

> java -jar $JETTY_HOME/start.jar --add-to-start=https,http2

> java -jar $JETTY_HOME/start.jar

2015-06-04 13:52:01.933:INFO:oejs.ServerConnector:main: Started ServerConnector@6f1fba17{SSL,[ssl, alpn, h2, http/1.1]}{}

The --add-to-start command sets up the effective command line in the ini files to run an ssl connection that supports the HTTPS and HTTP2 protocols as follows:

  • creates start.d/ssl.ini that configures an SSL connector (eg port, keystore etc.) by adding etc/jetty-ssl.xml and etc/jetty-ssl-context.xml to the effective command line.
  • creates start.d/alpn.ini that configures protocol negotiation on the SSL connector by adding etc/jetty-alpn.xml to the effective command line.
  • creates start.d/https.ini that configures the HTTPS protocol on the SSL connector by adding etc/jetty-https.xml to the effective command line.
  • creates start.d/http2.ini that configures the HTTP/2 protocol on the SSL connector by adding etc/jetty-http2.xml to the effective command line.
  • checks for the existence of a etc/keystore file and if not present, downloads a demonstration keystore file.

Changing the Jetty HTTPS Port

You can configure the SSL connector to run on a different port by setting the jetty.ssl.port property on the command line:

> java -jar $JETTY_HOME/start.jar jetty.ssl.port=8444

Alternatively, property values can be added to the effective command line built from the start.ini file or start.d/*.ini files, depending on your set up. Please see the section on Start.ini vs. Start.d for more information.

More start.jar options

The job of the start.jar is to interpret the command line, start.ini and start.d directory (and associated .ini files) to build a Java classpath and list of properties and configuration files to pass to the main class of the Jetty XML configuration mechanism. The start.jar mechanism has many options which are documented in the Chapter 9, Starting Jetty administration section and you can see them in summary by using the command:

> java -jar $JETTY_HOME/start.jar --help

See an error or something missing? Contribute to this documentation at Github!(Generated: 2017-05-02)