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Chapter 13. JMX

Table of Contents

Using Java Management Extensions (JMX)
Jetty JConsole
Jetty JMX Annotations

Using Java Management Extensions (JMX)

The Java Management Extensions (JMX) API is a standard API for managing and monitoring resources such as applications, devices, services, and the Java virtual machine.

Typical uses of the JMX technology include:

  • Consulting and changing application configuration.

  • Accumulating and making available statistics about application behavior.

  • Notifying of state changes and erroneous conditions.

The JMX API includes remote access, so a remote management program can interact with a running application for these purposes.

Jetty JMX integration uses the platform MBean server implementation that Java VM provides. The integration is based on the ObjectMBean implementation of DynamicMBean. This implementation allows you to wrap an arbitrary POJO in an MBean and annotate it appropriately to expose it via JMX. See Jetty JMX Annotations.

TheMBeanContainer implementation of the Container.Listener interface coordinates creation of MBeans. The Jetty Server and it's components use a Container to maintain a containment tree of components and to support notification of changes to that tree. The MBeanContainer class listens for Container events and creates and destroys MBeans as required to wrap all Jetty components.

You can access the MBeans that Jetty publishes both through built-in Java VM connector via JConsole, or by registering a remote JMX connector and using a remote JMX agent to monitor Jetty.

Configuring JMX

This guide describes how to initialize and configure the Jetty JMX integration.

To monitor an application using JMX, perform the following steps:

  • Configure the application to instantiate an MBean container.

  • Instrument objects to be MBeans.

  • Provide access for JMX agents to MBeans.

Using JConsole to Access Jetty MBeans

The simplest way to access the MBeans that Jetty publishes is to use the JConsole utility the Java Virtual Machine supplies. See Jetty JConsole for instructions on how to configure JVM for use with JConsole.

To access Jetty MBeans via JConsole, you must:

  • Enable the registration of Jetty MBeans into the platform MBeanServer.

  • Enable a JMXConnectorServer so that JConsole can connect and visualize the MBeans.

Registering Jetty MBeans

Configuring Jetty JMX integration differs for standalone and embedded Jetty.

Standalone Jetty

JMX is enabled by default in the jetty-9 distribution. If you are having difficulties validate that the section in the jetty.home/start.ini file is uncommented.

Embedded Jetty

When running Jetty embedded into an application, create and configure an MBeanContainer instance as follows:

Notice that Jetty creates the MBeanContainer immediately after creating the Server, and immediately after registering it as an EventListener of the Server object (which is also a Container object).

Because logging is initialized prior to the MBeanContainer (even before the Server itself), it is necessary to register the logger manually via server.addBean() so that the loggers may show up in the JMX tree

Using the Jetty Maven Plugin with JMX

If you are using the jetty maven plugin you should copy the etc/jetty-jmx.xml file into your webapp project somewhere, such as src/etc, then add a <jettyconfig> element to the plugin <configuration>:

Enabling JMXConnectorServer for Remote Access

There are two ways of enabling remote connectivity so that JConsole can connect to visualize MBeans.

  • Use the system property on the command line. Unfortunately, this solution does not play well with firewalls and it is not flexible.

  • Use Jetty's ConnectorServer class. To enable use of this class, uncomment the correspondent portion in etc/jetty-jmx.xml, like this:

This configuration snippet starts an RMIRegistry and a JMXConnectorServer both on port 1099 (by default), so that firewalls should open just that one port to allow connections from JConsole.

Securing Remote Access

JMXConnectorServer several options to restrict access. For a complete guide to controlling authentication and authorization in JMX, see Authentication and Authorization in JMX RMI connectors in Luis-Miguel Alventosa's blog.

To restrict access to the JMXConnectorServer, you can use this configuration, where the jmx.password and jmx.access files have the format specified in the blog entry above:

Custom Monitor Application

Using the JMX API, you can also write a custom application to monitor your Jetty server. To allow this application to connect to your Jetty server, you need to uncomment the last section of your etc/jetty-jmx.xml configuration file and optionally modify the endpoint name. Doing so creates a JMX HTTP connector and registers a JMX URL that outputs to the Stderr log.

You should provide the URL that appears in the log to your monitor application in order to create an MBeanServerConnection. You can use the same URL to connect to your Jetty instance from a remote machine using JConsole. See the configuration file for more details.

See an error or something missing? Contribute to this documentation at Github!(Generated: 2016-03-17)