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Configuring SSL

Understanding Certificates and Keys

This document provides an overview of how to configure SSL (also known as TLS) for Jetty.

Understanding Certificates and Keys

Configuring SSL can be a confusing experience of keys, certificates, protocols and formats, thus it helps to have a reasonable understanding of the basics. The following links provide some good starting points:

OpenSSL vs. Keytool

For testing, the keytool utility bundled with the JDK provides the simplest way to generate the key and certificate you need.

You can also use the OpenSSL tools to generate keys and certificates, or to convert those that you have used with Apache or other servers. Since Apache and other servers commonly use the OpenSSL tool suite to generate and manipulate keys and certificates, you might already have some keys and certificates created by OpenSSL, or you might also prefer the formats OpenSSL produces.

If you want the option of using the same certificate with Jetty or a web server such as Apache not written in Java, you might prefer to generate your private key and certificate with OpenSSL.

Configuring Jetty for SSL

To configure Jetty for SSL, complete the tasks in the following sections:

Generating Key Pairs and Certificates

The simplest way to generate keys and certificates is to use the keytool application that comes with the JDK, as it generates keys and certificates directly into the keystore. See Generating Keys and Certificates with JDK's keytool.

If you already have keys and certificates, see Loading Keys and Certificates to load them into a JSSE keystore. This section also applies if you have a renewal certificate to replace one that is expiring.

The examples below generate only basic keys and certificates. You should read the full manuals of the tools you are using if you want to specify:

  • the key size

  • the certificate expiration date

  • alternate security providers

Generating Keys and Certificates with JDK's keytool

The following command generates a key pair and certificate directly into file keystore:

$ keytool -keystore keystore -alias jetty -genkey -keyalg RSA

Note

The DSA key algorithm certificate produces an error after loading several pages. In a browser, it displays a message "Could not establish an encrypted connection because certificate presented by localhost has an invalid signature." The solution is to use RSA for the key algorithm.

This command prompts for information about the certificate and for passwords to protect both the keystore and the keys within it. The only mandatory response is to provide the fully qualified host name of the server at the "first and last name" prompt. For example:

$ keytool -keystore keystore -alias jetty -genkey -keyalg RSA
 Enter keystore password:  password
 What is your first and last name?
   [Unknown]:  jetty.eclipse.org
 What is the name of your organizational unit?
   [Unknown]:  Jetty
 What is the name of your organization?
   [Unknown]:  Mort Bay Consulting Pty. Ltd.
 What is the name of your City or Locality?
   [Unknown]:
 What is the name of your State or Province?
   [Unknown]:
 What is the two-letter country code for this unit?
   [Unknown]:
 Is CN=jetty.eclipse.org, OU=Jetty, O=Mort Bay Consulting Pty. Ltd.,
 L=Unknown, ST=Unknown, C=Unknown correct?
   [no]:  yes

 Enter key password for <jetty>
         (RETURN if same as keystore password):
 $

You now have the minimal requirements to run an SSL connection and could proceed directly to configure an SSL connector. However the browser will not trust the certificate you have generated, and prompts the user to this effect. While what you have at this point is often sufficient for testing, most public sites need a trusted certificate, as shown in the section generating a CSR with keytool.

Generating Keys and Certificates with OpenSSL

The following command generates a key pair in the file jetty.key:

$ openssl genrsa -des3 -out jetty.key

You might also want to use the -rand file argument to provide an arbitrary file that helps seed the random number generator.

The following command generates a certificate for the key into the file jetty.crt:

$ openssl req -new -x509 -key jetty.key -out jetty.crt

The next command prompts for information about the certificate and for passwords to protect both the keystore and the keys within it. The only mandatory response is to provide the fully qualified host name of the server at the "Common Name" prompt. For example:

$ openssl genrsa -des3 -out jetty.key
 Generating RSA private key, 512 bit long modulus
 ...........................++++++++++++
 ..++++++++++++
 e is 65537 (0x10001)
 Enter pass phrase for jetty.key:
 Verifying - Enter pass phrase for jetty.key:

$ openssl req -new -x509 -key jetty.key -out jetty.crt
 Enter pass phrase for jetty.key:
 You are about to be asked to enter information to be incorporated
 into your certificate request.
 What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
 There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
 For some fields there is a default value,
 If you enter '.', the field is left blank.
 -----
 Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:.
 State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:.
 Locality Name (eg, city) []:.
 Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgets Pty Ltd]:Mort Bay Consulting Pty. Ltd.
 Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:Jetty
 Common Name (eg, YOUR name) []:jetty.eclipse.org
 Email Address []:

$

You now have the minimal requirements to run an SSL connection and could proceed directly to Loading Keys and Certificates to load these keys and certificates into a JSSE keystore. However the browser will not trust the certificate you have generated, and prompts the user to this effect. While what you have at this point is often sufficient for testing, most public sites need a trusted certificate, as shown in the section, Generating a CSR from OpenSSL to obtain a certificate.

Using Keys and Certificates from Other Sources

If you have keys and certificates from other sources, you can proceed directly to Loading Keys and Certificates.

Requesting a Trusted Certificate

The keys and certificates generated with JDK's keytool and OpenSSL are sufficient to run an SSL connector. However the browser will not trust the certificate you have generated, and it will prompt the user to this effect.

To obtain a certificate that most common browsers will trust, you need to request a well-known certificate authority (CA) to sign your key/certificate. Such trusted CAs include: AddTrust, Entrust, GeoTrust, RSA Data Security, Thawte, VISA, ValiCert, Verisign, and beTRUSTed, among others. Each CA has its own instructions (look for JSSE or OpenSSL sections), but all involve a step that generates a certificate signing request (CSR).

Generating a CSR with keytool

The following command generates the file jetty.csr using keytool for a key/cert already in the keystore:

$ keytool -certreq -alias jetty -keystore keystore -file jetty.csr
Generating a CSR from OpenSSL

The following command generates the file jetty.csr using OpenSSL for a key in the file jetty.key:

$ openssl req -new -key jetty.key -out jetty.csr

Notice that this command uses only the existing key from jetty.key file, and not a certificate in jetty.crt as generated with OpenSSL. You need to enter the details for the certificate again.

Loading Keys and Certificates

Once a CA has sent you a certificate, or if you generated your own certificate without keytool, you need to load it into a JSSE keystore.

Note

You need both the private key and the certificate in the JSSE keystore. You should load the certificate into the keystore used to generate the CSR with keytool. If your key pair is not already in a keystore (for example, because it has been generated with OpenSSL), you need to use the PKCS12 format to load both key and certificate (see PKCKS12 Keys & Certificates).

Loading Certificates with keytool

You can use keytool to load a certificate in PEM form directly into a keystore. The PEM format is a text encoding of certificates; it is produced by OpenSSL, and is returned by some CAs. An example PEM file is:

jetty.crt
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
MIICSDCCAfKgAwIBAgIBADANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQQFADBUMSYwJAYDVQQKEx1Nb3J0
IEJheSBDb25zdWx0aW5nIFB0eS4gTHRkLjEOMAwGA1UECxMFSmV0dHkxGjAYBgNV
BAMTEWpldHR5Lm1vcnRiYXkub3JnMB4XDTAzMDQwNjEzMTk1MFoXDTAzMDUwNjEz
MTk1MFowVDEmMCQGA1UEChMdTW9ydCBCYXkgQ29uc3VsdGluZyBQdHkuIEx0ZC4x
DjAMBgNVBAsTBUpldHR5MRowGAYDVQQDExFqZXR0eS5tb3J0YmF5Lm9yZzBcMA0G
CSqGSIb3DQEBAQUAA0sAMEgCQQC5V4oZeVdhdhHqa9L2/ZnKySPWUqqy81riNfAJ
7uALW0kEv/LtlG34dOOcVVt/PK8/bU4dlolnJx1SpiMZbKsFAgMBAAGjga4wgasw
HQYDVR0OBBYEFFV1gbB1XRvUx1UofmifQJS/MCYwMHwGA1UdIwR1MHOAFFV1gbB1
XRvUx1UofmifQJS/MCYwoVikVjBUMSYwJAYDVQQKEx1Nb3J0IEJheSBDb25zdWx0
aW5nIFB0eS4gTHRkLjEOMAwGA1UECxMFSmV0dHkxGjAYBgNVBAMTEWpldHR5Lm1v
cnRiYXkub3JnggEAMAwGA1UdEwQFMAMBAf8wDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEEBQADQQA6NkaV
OtXzP4ayzBcgK/qSCmF44jdcARmrXhiXUcXzjxsLjSJeYPJojhUdC2LQKy+p4ki8
Rcz6oCRvCGCe5kDB
-----END CERTIFICATE-----

The following command loads a PEM encoded certificate in the jetty.crt file into a JSSE keystore:

$ keytool -keystore keystore -import -alias jetty -file jetty.crt -trustcacerts

If the certificate you receive from the CA is not in a format that keytool understands, you can use the openssl command to convert formats:

$ openssl x509 -in jetty.der -inform DER -outform PEM -out jetty.crt
Loading Keys and Certificates via PKCS12

If you have a key and certificate in separate files, you need to combine them into a PKCS12 format file to load into a new keystore. The certificate can be one you generated yourself or one returned from a CA in response to your CSR.

The following OpenSSL command combines the keys in jetty.key and the certificate in the jetty.crt file into the jetty.pkcs12 file:

$ openssl pkcs12 -inkey jetty.key -in jetty.crt -export -out jetty.pkcs12

If you have a chain of certificates, because your CA is an intermediary, build the PKCS12 file as follows:

$ cat example.crt intermediate.crt [intermediate2.crt] ... rootCA.crt > cert-chain.txt
$ openssl pkcs12 -export -inkey example.key -in cert-chain.txt -out example.pkcs12

The order of certificates must be from server to rootCA, as per RFC2246 section 7.4.2.

OpenSSL asks for an export password. A non-empty password is required to make the next step work. Then load the resulting PKCS12 file into a JSSE keystore with keytool:

$ keytool -importkeystore -srckeystore jetty.pkcs12 -srcstoretype PKCS12 -destkeystore keystore

Configuring SslContextFactory

The generated SSL certificates held in the key store are configured on Jetty by injection an instance of SslContextFactory object and passing it to the connector's SslConnectionFactory, which is done in the jetty distribution by both in jetty-https.xml and jetty-spdy.xml. Since SPDY is able to handle HTTPS also, typically you will configure jetty to use one of these configuration files or the other, which can be done other on the command line or by editing the start.ini file.

These configuration files create an SslContextFactory instance with the ID "sslContextFactory":

This example uses the keystore distributed with jetty. To use your own keystore you need to update at least the following settings:

KeyStorePath

You can either replace the provided keystore with your own, or change the configuration to point to a different file. Note that as a keystore is vital security information, it can be desirable to locate the file in a directory with very restricted access.

KeyStorePassword

The keystore password may be set here in plain text, or as some protection from casual observation, it may be obfuscated using the Password class.

The Truststore is used if validating client certificates and is typically set to the same keystore.

The keyManagerPassword is passed as the password arg to KeyManagerFactory.init(...). If there is no keymanagerpassword, then the keystorepassword is used instead. If there is no trustmanager set, then the keystore is used as the trust store and the keystorepassword is used as the truststore password

There is no need to create a new instance of SslContextFactory using the xml above as one exists in jetty-ssl.xml. Edit the paths and passwords in jetty-ssl.xml and ensure you add following lines to start.ini after the line jetty.dump.stop=:

Optionally, configure the https port either in jetty-https.xml like this:

or via the commandline e.g.

$ java -jar start.jar https.port=8443

Disabling/Enabling specific cipher suites

For example to avoid the BEAST attack it is necessary to configure a specific set of cipher suites. This can either be done via SslContext.setIncludeCipherSuites(java.lang.String...) or via SslContext.setExcludeCipherSuites(java.lang.String...).

Note

It's crucial that you use the exact names of the cipher suites as used/known by the JDK. You can get them by obtaining an instance of SSLEngine and call getSupportedCipherSuites(). Tools like ssllabs.com might report slightly different names which will be ignored.

Both setIncludeCipherSuites and setExcludeCipherSuites can be feed by the exact cipher suite name used in the jdk or by using regular expressions.

Here's a couple of examples on how to include only RC4 cipher suites. All of them will protect the server from the BEAST attack.

Include a preferred set of cipher suites:

Include all RC4 cipher suites by using a regex:

Exclude all non RC4 cipher suites:

Note

It is recommended to use the IncludeCipherSuites with the regex unless you've reasons you need to specify specific cipher suites. This configuration will adapt to any additions/removals of cipher suites to new versions of the JDK.

Configuring SSL Connector and Port

This SslContextFactory instance created above is injected into a SslConnectionFactory instance to be used when accepting network connections, which in turn is injected into an instance of ServerConnector. For example from jetty-https.xml:

Note also that the SSL connector port is set directly on the ServerConnector instance.

Renewing Certificates

If you are updating your configuration to use a newer certificate, as when the old one is expiring, just load the newer certificate as described in the section, Loading Keys and Certificates. If you imported the key and certificate originally using the PKCS12 method, use an alias of "1" rather than "jetty", because that is the alias the PKCS12 process enters into the keystore.

See an error or something missing? Contribute to this documentation at Github!(Generated: 2014-09-17T01:00:24-07:00)