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EclipseLink Solutions Guide for EclipseLink
Release 2.4
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Implementing the Solution

To run EclipseLink JPA applications in GlassFish Server, you must configure the server and coordinate certain server and application settings. These are described in the following tasks.

Task 1: Prerequisites

This document is based on the following products and tools, although the principles apply to any supported database or development environment. It is assumed that the software is already installed, except where noted in later sections.

Task 2: Install GlassFish Server

EclipseLink is included with the GlassFish Server distribution. You can find instructions for installing and configuring in the Oracle GlassFish Server Documentation Library.

The EclipseLink modules appear as separate JAR files in the modules directory.

* \glassfish\modules
      .
      .
      .
      o org.eclipse.persistence.antlr.jar
      o org.eclipse.persistence.asm.jar
      o org.eclipse.persistence.core.jar
      o org.eclipse.persistence.jpa.jar
      o org.eclipse.persistence.jpa.modelgen.jar
      o org.eclipse.persistence.moxy.jar
      o org.eclipse.persistence.oracle.jar
      .
      .
      .

NoteNote:

  • The org.eclipse.persistence.oracle.jar file is available with GlassFish and provides Oracle Database-specific functionality for EclipseLink. This file is used only for applications running against an Oracle Database.


Object-XML (also known as JAXB support, or MOXy) is a component that enables you to bind Java classes to XML schemas. This support is provided by the org.eclipse.persistence.moxy.jar.

Task 3: Set Up the Data Source

Configuring an Oracle database as a JDBC resource for a Java EE application involves the following steps:

  1. Integrate the JDBC Driver for Oracle Database into GlassFish Server

  2. Create a JDBC Connection Pool for the Resource

  3. Create the JDBC Resource

Integrate the JDBC Driver for Oracle Database into GlassFish Server

To integrate the JDBC driver, copy its JAR file into the domain and then restart the domain and instances to make the driver available.

  1. Copy the JAR file for the JDBC driver into the domain's lib subdirectory, for example:

    cd /home/gfuser/glassfish3
    cp oracle-jdbc-drivers/ojdbc6.jar glassfish/domains/domain1/lib
    

    Note that you do not have to restart GlassFish Server; the drivers are picked up dynamically.

    If the application uses Oracle Database-specific extensions provided by EclipseLink, then the driver must be copied to the lib/ext directory. For more information, see "Oracle Database Enhancements" in the Oracle GlassFish Server Application Development Guide.

  2. You can use the GlassFish Server Administration Console or the command line to restart instances in the domain to make the JDBC driver available to the instances.

    To use the GlassFish Server Administration Console:

    In the GlassFish Server Administration Console, expand the Cluster node. Select the node for the cluster and on its General Information page, click the Instances tab. Select the instances you want to restart. For more information, see "To Start Clustered GlassFish Server Instances" in GlassFish Server Administration Console Online Help.

    To start a standalone instance, expand the Standalone Instances node. For each instance that you are starting, select the instance in the Server Instances table. Click Start. The status of each instance is updated in the Server Instances table when the instance is started. For more information, see "To Start Standalone GlassFish Server Instances" in GlassFish Server Administration Console Online Help.

    To use the command line:

    Run the restart-instance subcommand to restart the instances. These commands assume that your instances are named pmd-i1 and pmd-i2.

    restart-instance pmd-i1
    restart-instance pmd-i2
    

Create a JDBC Connection Pool for the Resource

You can create a JDBC connection pool from the GlassFish Server Administration Console or from the command line.

To use the GlassFish Server Administration Console:

In the GlassFish Server Administration Console, expand the Common Tasks node, then click the Create New JDBC Connection Pool button in the Common Tasks page. Specify the name of the pool, the resource type, the name of the database provider, the data source and driver class names, and other details. For more information, see "To Create a JDBC Connection Pool" in GlassFish Server Administration Console Online Help.

To use the command line:

  1. Use the create-jdbc-connection-pool subcommand to create the JDBC connection pool, specifying the database connectivity values. In this command, note the use of two backslashes (\\) preceding the colons in the URL property value. These backslashes cause the colons to be interpreted as part of the property value instead of as separators between property-value pairs, for example:

    create-jdbc-connection-pool 
      --datasourceclassname oracle.jdbc.pool.OracleDataSource 
      --restype javax.sql.DataSource 
      --property User=smith\\:Password=password\\:url=jdbc\\:oracle\\:thin\\:@node_name.example.com\\:1521\\:smithdb 
        poolbvcallbackbmt 
    
  2. Verify connectivity to the database.

    ping-connection-pool pool_name 
    

Create the JDBC Resource

You can use the GlassFish Server Administration Console to create the JDBC resource or you can use the command line.

To use the GlassFish Server Administration Console:

In the GlassFish Server Administration Console, expand the Resources node, then the JDBC node, then the JDBC Resources node to open the JDBC Resources page. Provide a unique JNDI resource name and associate the resource with a connection pool. For more information, see "To Create a JDBC Resource" in the GlassFish Server Administration Console Online Help.

To use the command line:

Use the create-jdbc-resource subcommand to create the JDBC resource, and name it so that the application can discover it using JNDI lookup, for example:

create-jdbc-resource --connectionpoolid poolbvcallbackbmt jdbc/bvcallbackbmt

Task 4: Create the persistence.xml File

Example 4-1 illustrates a sample persistence.xml file that specifies the default persistence provider for EclipseLink, org.eclipse.persistence.jpa.PersistenceProvider. For more information about this file, see "About the Persistence Unit" in EclipseLink Concepts.

If you are using the default persistence provider, then you can specify additional database properties described in Java Persistence API (JPA) Extensions Reference for Oracle TopLink.

Several of the values you enter in the file must match the values you chose when you defined the cluster, connection, and connection pool properties in GlassFish Server, as follows:

JDBC Data Source Properties:

  • Name: The name of the data source, which is typically the same as the JNDI name, for example jdbc/bvcallbackbmt.

  • JNDI Name: The JNDI path to where this data source is bound. This must be the same name as the value for the <jta-data-source> element in persistence.xml, for example jdbc/bvcallbackbmt.

  • Database Type: Oracle

  • Database Driver: (default) Oracle's Driver (Thin XA) for Instance connections; Versions: 9.0.1 and later

Connection Properties:

  • Database Name: The name of the database, for example, XE for Oracle Database Express Edition samples.

  • Host Name: The IP address of the database server, for example 127.0.0.1 for a locally hosted database.

  • Port: The port number on which your database server listens for connection requests, for example, 1521, the default for Oracle Database Express Edition 11g.

  • Database User Name: The database account user name used to create database connections, for example hr for Oracle Database Express Edition 11g samples.

  • Password: Your password.

Select Targets:

  • Servers / Clusters: Select the administration server, managed servers, or clusters to which you want to deploy the data source. You can choose one or more.

The sample persistence.xml file in Example 4-1 highlights the properties defining the persistence provider, the JTA data source, and logging details. In this example, the logging level is set to FINE. At this level, SQL code generated by EclipseLink is logged to the server.log file. For more information about these properties, see:

Example 4-1 Sample persistence.xml File

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<persistence xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/persistence" version="2.0">
  <persistence-unit name="pu1" transaction-type="JTA">
    <provider>org.eclipse.persistence.jpa.PersistenceProvider</provider>
    <jta-data-source>jdbc/bvcallbackbmt</jta-data-source>
    <properties>
       <property name="eclipselink.logging.level" value="FINE"/>
       <property name="eclipselink.ddl-generation" 
                 value="drop-and-create-tables"/>
    </properties>
  </persistence-unit>
</persistence>

Specify the Persistence Provider

The persistence provider defines the implementation of JPA. It is defined in the provider element of the persistence.xml file. Persistence providers are vendor-specific. The persistence provider for EclipseLink is org.eclipse.persistence.jpa.PersistenceProvider.

Specify an Oracle Database

You specify the database connection details in the persistence.xml file. GlassFish Server uses the bundled Java DB (Derby) database by default, named jdbc/__default. To use a nondefault database, such as the Oracle Database, either specify a value for the jta-data-source element, or set the transaction-type element to RESOURCE_LOCAL and specify a value for the non-jta-data-source element.

If you are using the default persistence provider, org.eclipse.persistence.jpa.PersistenceProvider, then the provider attempts to automatically detect the database type based on the connection metadata. This database type is used to issue SQL statements specific to the detected database type. You can specify the optional eclipselink.target-database property to guarantee that the database type is correct.

For more information about specifying database properties in a persistence.xml file for GlassFish Server, see "Specifying the Database for an Application" in the Oracle GlassFish Server Application Development Guide.

Specify Logging

EclipseLink provides a logging utility even though logging is not part of the JPA specification. Hence, the information provided by the log is EclipseLink JPA-specific. With EclipseLink, you can enable logging to view the following information:

  • Configuration details

  • Information to facilitate debugging

  • The SQL that is being sent to the database

You can specify logging in the persistence.xml file. EclipseLink logging properties let you specify the level of logging and whether the log output goes to a file or standard output. Because the logging utility is based on java.util.logging, you can specify a logging level to use.

The logging utility provides nine levels of logging control over the amount and detail of the log output. Use eclipselink.logging.level to set the logging level, for example:

<property name="eclipselink.logging.level" value="FINE"/>

By default, the log output goes to System.out or to the console. To configure the output to be logged to a file, set the property eclipselink.logging.file, for example:

<property name="eclipselink.logging.file" value="output.log"/>

EclipseLink's logging utility is pluggable, and several different logging integrations are supported, including java.util.logging. To enable java.util.logging, set the property eclipselink.logging.logger, for example:

<property name="eclipselink.logging.logger" value="JavaLogger"/>

While running inside GlassFish Server, EclipseLink is configured by GlassFish Server to use JavaLogger by default. The log is always redirected to the GlassFish Server server.log file. For more information, see "Setting Log Levels" in Oracle GlassFish Server Administration Guide.

For more information about EclipseLink logging and the levels of logging available in the logging utility, see "Persistence Property Extensions Reference" in Java Persistence API (JPA) Extensions Reference for Oracle TopLink.

Task 5: Set Up GlassFish Server for JPA

"Configuring the Java Persistence Provider" in the GlassFish Server Application Development Guide describes server-specific considerations on setting up GlassFish Server to run applications that employ JPA.

It provides more information about these topics:

  • "Specifying the Database for an Application," for information about database connection properties

  • "Specifying the Persistence Provider for an Application," for setting the default or non-default persistence provider for an application

  • "Primary Key Generation Defaults," for the default persistence provider's primary key generation defaults

  • "Automatic Schema Generation," for information on annotations and options to manage automatic schema generation

  • "Restrictions and Optimizations," for restrictions and performance optimizations that affect using the Java Persistence API

Task 6: Create the Application

To create an application that uses EclipseLink as its JPA persistence provider, you may want to use a Java EE IDE for convenience during development. For example, JDeveloper, Oracle Enterprise Pack for Eclipse, and NetBeans provide sophisticated Java EE development tools, including support for EclipseLink. See "Key Tools" in EclipseLink Concepts.

For guidance in writing your application, see these topics from the "Configuring the Java Persistence Provider" chapter in Oracle GlassFish Server Application Development Guide.

Task 7: Deploy the Application to GlassFish Server

For information about deploying to GlassFish Server, see "Deploy Applications or Modules," "To Deploy an Enterprise Application," and "To Deploy a Web Application" in GlassFish Server Administration Console Online Help. See also the Oracle GlassFish Server Application Deployment Guide.

Task 8: Run the Application

For instructions for starting a deployed application from the GlassFish Server Administration Console, see "Application Client Launch" and "To Launch an Application" in GlassFish Server Administration Console Online Help.

Task 9: Monitor the Application

GlassFish Server provides a monitoring service to track the health and performance of an application. For information about monitoring an application from the console, see the "Monitoring" and "Monitoring Data" topics in GlassFish Server Administration Console Online Help. For information about monitoring the application from the command line, see "Administering the Monitoring Service" in Oracle GlassFish Server Administration Guide.

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